Josef “Jeff” Sipek


The Apple ISA — An interesting view of what Apple could aim for instruction set architecture-wise.

Internetová jazyková příručka — A reference book with grammar and dictionary detailing how to conjugate each Czech word.

Java is Magic: the Gathering (or Poker) and Haskell is Go (the game)

An Interview with Brian Kernighan (July 2000)

Booting a Raspberry Pi2, with u-boot and HYP enabled

The SmPL Grammar — Description of the grammar used by Coccinelle.

Netbooting Debian Squeeze — A link I had sitting around for a couple of years when I last set up a NFS-root netbooting Linux system.

Are there any 3 dimensional items wwe can’t print layer by layer — A humorous story about Wikipedia article: Fubini’s theorem and its relation to 3D printing.

The Diagnosis of Mistakes in Programmes on the EDSAC — In some ways, debugging hasn’t changed much since 1951.

Raspberry Pi Bootloader

As I mentioned previously, I decided to do some hardware hacking and as a result I ended up with a Raspberry Pi B+. After playing with Raspbian for a bit, I started trying to read up on how the Pi boots. That’s what today’s post is about.

Standalone UART

While searching for information about how the Pi boots, I stumbled across a git repo with a standalone UART program. Conveniently, the repo includes ELF files as well as raw binary images. (This actually made me go “ewww” at first.)

Before even running it, I looked at the code and saw that it prints out 0x12345678 followed by the PC of one of the first instructions of the program. Pretty minimal, but quite enough.

Boot Process

Just about everyone on the internet (and their grandmothers!) knows that the Pi has a multi stage boot. First of all, it is the GPU that starts executing first. The ARM core just sits there waiting for a reset.

The Pi requires an SD card to boot — on it must be a FAT formatted partition with a couple of files that you can download from the Raspberry Pi Foundation.

Here’s the short version of what happens:

  1. Some sort of baked-in firmware loads bootcode.bin from the SD card and executes it.
  2. bootcode.bin does a bit of setup, and then loads and executes start.elf.
  3. start.elf does a whole lot of setup.

    1. Reads config.txt which is a text file with a bunch of options.
    2. Splits the RAM between the GPU and CPU (with the help of fixup.dat).
    3. Loads the kernel and the ramdisk.
    4. Loads the device tree file or sets up ATAGs.
    5. Resets the ARM core. The ARM core then begins executing the kernel.

This sounds pretty nice, right? For the most part, it is. But as they say, the devil’s in the details.

Booting ELF Files

It doesn’t take a lot of reading to figure out that start.elf can deal with kernel files in ELF format. This made me quite happy since I’ve written an ELF loader before for HVF and while it wasn’t difficult, I didn’t want to go through the exercise just to get something booting.

So, I copied uart02.elf to the SD card, and made a minimal config file:


A power-cycle later, I saw the two hex numbers. (Ok, this is a bit of a distortion of reality. It took far too many reboots because I was playing with multiple things at the same time — including U-Boot which turned out to be a total waste of my time.)

The PC was not what I expected it to be. It was 0x8080 instead of 0x800c. After a lot of trial and error, I realized that it just so happened that the .text section is 0x74 bytes into the ELF file. Then I had a horrifying thought… start.elf understands ELF files enough to jump to the right instruction but it does nothing to make the contents of the ELF file properly laid out in memory. It just reads the file into memory starting at address 0x8000, gets the start address from the ELF header, converts it into a file offset and jumps to that location in memory. This is wrong.

Sure enough, booting uart02.bin printed the right number. So much for avoiding writing my own ELF loader.


Once I had a reliable way to get code to execute and communicate via the serial port, I started playing with ramdisks. The code I was booting parsed the ATAGs and looked for ATAG_INITRD2 which describes the location of the ramdisk.

So, I extended my config to include the ramfsfile parameter to specify the filename of the ramdisk:


Reboot, aaaand…the code panicked because it couldn’t find ATAG_INITRD2. It was weird, the file was present, no misspellings, etc. After a while of rebooting and trying different things, I decide to use the initramfs option and just pick some arbitrary high address for the ramdisk to be loaded at. The config changed to:

initramfs initrd 0x800000

Another reboot later, I was looking at a dump of the ATAG_INITRD2. Everything worked as expected! So, it turns out that the boot loader on the Pi is not capable of picking an address for the initial ramdisk by itself.

Command line

Finally, I just had to experiment with passing a command line string. I created a file called cmdline.txt on the SD card with some text. A reboot later, I saw that the dump of the ATAG_CMDLINE had some cruft prepended. The entire value of the ATAG looked like (with some spaces replaced by line breaks):

dma.dmachans=0x7f35 bcm2708_fb.fbwidth=656 bcm2708_fb.fbheight=416
bcm2708.boardrev=0x10 bcm2708.serial=0xbd225074
smsc95xx.macaddr=B8:27:EB:45:74:FA bcm2708_fb.fbswap=1
bcm2708.disk_led_gpio=47 bcm2708.disk_led_active_low=0
sdhci-bcm2708.emmc_clock_freq=250000000 vc_mem.mem_base=0x1ec00000
vc_mem.mem_size=0x20000000  foo

This isn’t exactly the worst thing, but it does mean that the option parsing code has to handle cruft prepended to what it would expect the command line to look. I wish that these settings were passed via a separate ATAG.

Raspberry Pi Serial

Just so I don’t forget, my PL2303HX based TTL serial cable is supposed to be connected to the Raspberry Pi B+ in the following way:

Wire Color Wire GPIO header
Red 5V DC not connected
Black GND Pin 6
White RxD Pin 8 (TxD)
Green TxD Pin 10 (RxD)

Note that even though the power wire (red) is 5V, the signaling wires (white & green) are 3.3V TTL.

On Illumos, the Prolific chip uses the usbsprl driver.

Raspberry Pi

Two weeks ago, I decided to do some hardware hacking. After a bit of reading up on embedded boards, I ended up buying a Raspberry Pi B+. It’s essentially a slightly smaller form factor version of the B, that has more GPIO pins and uses microSD cards instead of SD cards.

I hooked it up to the TV and played with Raspbian and RiscOS a little bit. As you may have guessed by now, that was not enough fun for me. I just had to boot a custom OS that talked over serial. :) This of course required some way to connect the Pi to something that can talk serial. But that’s a post for another day. :P This post is going to be about my impression of the Pi, as well as a cute little use I found for it over the past week.


The Pi is a rather small board. The B+ is even smaller. A lot has been written about the technical side, so I won’t bother.

I was rather impressed with how much punch this little board packs. The hardest part about getting it going was putting it in the case (I got one of those kits because it was cheaper than buying everything separately). The built-in 4-port USB hub ended up quite useful. It allowed me to plug in both a keyboard and a mouse and have NOOBS installing Raspbian and RiscOS within minutes. A quick reboot later, I was at a shell prompt. That’s where the “new toy high” wore off a little. (I know I’ve talked about this with people before — it’s cool to be portable, but it’s also boring since the architecture becomes irrelevant.) I had a shell, and the most creative thing I could think of was to look at /proc/cpuinfo and /proc/meminfo.

I do have some thoughts about where the Pi B+ could have been better. The B version used an SD card. The B+ uses a microSD card. I consider this a bit of a regression. I have a bunch of older SD cards and an SD card reader that works well with SD cards. Sadly, this card reader (using a microSD adapter) fails to play nice with the SDXC modernization of SD that all microSD cards seem to use. I have the same issue with other microSD cards, so I’m pretty sure it’s the card reader. This makes updating a bit more of a pain.

The other thing I wish the Pi had is a DB9 RS232 connector. I have USB serial dongles that work well, but to talk serial to the Pi one needs to either get a level converter or a TTL serial to USB cable. I ended up getting a cheap USB cable with a fake Prolific chip inside. It works, but I hear Windows users are having a terrible time with evil drivers from Prolific.

Storm Timelapse

A little over a week after getting the Pi in the mail, we got a large storm heading our way. I got the brilliant idea to set up a webcam in an upstairs window. Previously, this would involve digging up an old computer, setting it up by the window, etc. This time, I reached for the Pi. I connected a webcam to one of the USB ports and a cheap WiFi USB adapter to another. A short config later, Raspbian was on the network even though there’s no network drop in sight.

I didn’t want to abuse the microSD card for storage of images, so I mounted an NFS share from the storage server in the basement. I had to use the nolock option to make the mount happen. I probably could have figured out why the lock manager was not running, but it was a temporary setup so a “quick hack” was all I did.

To capture images from the webcam, I ended up installing fswebcam, a small program that does one thing and does it well. I started up screen, and ran fswebcam with the following config.

device /dev/video0
input 0
loop 5
resolution 800x600
timestamp "%Y-%m-%d %H:%M:%S %Z"
jpeg 95
save /mnt/webcam/%Y%m%d/%H/0_%Y%m%d_%H%M%S.jpg
palette YUYV

Then, downstairs on my laptop, I mounted the same share and watched the files appear every five seconds. I ended up running the webcam for two days.

Here’s a couple of stills from the 27th:

And here’s a couple from the 28th:

I did make a quick timelapse, but I haven’t tried to figure out a reasonable set of codec options to not end up with 300 MB of video. Maybe one day I’ll find a good set of options and upload the video here. Here’s what I used:

ffmpeg -framerate 30 -pattern_type glob -i '20150128/*/0_*.jpg' \
	-b:v 5000k -g 300 /tmp/out.mp4

Anyway, that’s it for today. I’ll write again about the Pi in the near future — from an OS developer’s perspective.

Powered by blahgd